In our previous articles we discussed about Basics of Cloud Computing and Characteristics of Cloud computing. And in our today’s article we will discuss about CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES

There are different innovations of Cloud computing that are working behind the cloud computing platform to make it reliable, adaptable and usable and they are:
A. Virtualization
B. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
C. Grid computing
D. Utility Computing
A. Virtualization

Virtualization in Cloud Computing:

Virtualization is a procedure that licenses sharing of a physical instance of resource or an application among various customers or an organization. It does so by assigning a logical name to a physical resource and providing a pointer to that physical resource when demanded.The main use of this technology is to provide the applications with astandard version to their cloud clients. For example, if the updated version of theapplication is released then cloud provider ought to provide the updated version to their clients. For example, VMware, and Xen offer virtualized IT frameworks on request. Virtual system progresses, for example, Virtual Private Network (VPN), support clients with a modified network environment to get Cloud resources. Virtualization techniques are the bases of Cloud Computing since they render scalable and flexible hardware services. The Multitenant architecture offers virtual disengagement among the various tenants and in this way the organizations can utilize and customize the application just as they each have its own particular instance running.

Types of Virtualization in Cloud Computing

1. Hardware Virtualization

2. Operating system Virtualization

3. Server Virtualization

4. Storage Virtualization

a. Hardware Virtualization: If the Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) or Virtual Machine Software (VMS) is directly installed on the hardware system, it is called as Hardware virtualization. The hardware virtualization is utilized for the server platform because controlling a virtual machine is not hard than controlling a physical server. There are various types of virtualization.
b) Operating system Virtualization: If the Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) or Virtual Machine Software (VMS) is installed on the Host Operating System rather than being directly installed on the hardware system, it is called as Operating System Virtualization. Operating System Virtualization is improved the situation testing the applications on various platforms of OS.
c) Server Virtualization: If the Virtual Machine  Manager (VMM) or Virtual Machine Software (VMS) is directly installed on the server system, it is called as Server Virtualization. If single physical server is divided into multiple servers for balancing
the load on demand basis, then Server Virtualization is used.
d) Storage Virtualization: The process of gathering physical storage from various network storage devices is known as Storage virtualization. After gathering multiple storage devices to the physical storage would seem that a single storage device.
Storage virtualization is utilized for back-up and recovery purposes.

2. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA):

Service-Oriented Architecture utilizes applications as a service for other applications. in any case the sort of seller, item or innovation… In this way, it is conceivable to trade of information between utilization of various sellers without extra programming or rolling out improvements to service. SOA is an application structure which takes everyday business applications and divides them into particular business procedures and function called Services. this component of cloud innovation enables associations to get to cloud-based registering arrangements with highlights that can be adjusted on request, as business needs change.SOA places the commitment and expenses of deployment, development, and support of web benefit parts on the web services supplier, which allows a web services purchaser to get to different web services without the cost or overhead that is connected with conventional methods for IT services. SOA is a successful mechanical piece of distributed computing since it energizes incorporated appropriation and fragment reuse, which essentially drives down the cost of programming advancement and conveyance. Service-Oriented Computing introduces and diffuses two important concepts, which are also fundamental for Cloud computing i.e Quality of Service (QoS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). Quality of Service identifies a set of functional and non-functional attributes that can be used to evaluate the behavior of a service from different perspectives and the Software as a Service introduces a new delivery model for applications. It has been inherited from the world of Application Service Providers (ASPs).

3. Grid computing: 

Grid Computing is defined as distributed computing in which a number of computers from multiple areas are connected together to achieve a common goal. The computer resources
are different and geographically spread.. therefore, Grid Computing breaks a large problem into smaller pieces.So, These smaller pieces are disseminated to systems that reside
within the grid. Grid system is intended for the sharing of resources through distributed and huge -scale cluster computing. Grid computing is popular in e-science, forms of research that often require huge computing power and collaboration between various data and computing services.

Planning applications on Grids can be a mind boggling errand, particularly while organizing the stream of data over circulated registering resources. Network work process frameworks have been made as a particular type of a work procedure administration framework  lanned particularly to create and execute a progression of work process, or a computational or, information control steps, or in the Grid setup.

A famous Grid Computing project is [email protected] The project involves utilizing unused computing powers of thousands of computers to perform a complex scientific problem. The goal of the project is “to understand proteinfolding, misfolding, and related diseases”.
D. Utility Computing: Utility computing relies upon Pay-per-Utilize model. It gives computational resources on ask for as a metered benefit. All the managed IT administrations, Grid computing, distributed computing are an idea follow on the
concept of grid computing. In reality pricing on cloud computing can be very complex.
As an example pricing of Amazon S3 as on November 2009 is explained below. Amazon charges for using US S3 are divided into three parts – storage charges, data transfer
charges and charges for anumber of requests. These charges are summed together to compute the total billing.

Data transfer charges are further divided into data transfer input and data transfer output. Data transfer rate for incoming data $0.100 per GB.

4. Utility Computing

Utility computing relies upon Pay-per-Utilize model. It gives computational resources on ask for as a metered benefit. All the managed IT administrations, Grid computing, distributed computing are an idea follow on the concept of grid computing. In reality pricing on cloud computing can be very complex. As an example pricing of Amazon S3 as on November 2009 is explained below. Amazon charges for using US S3 are divided into three parts – storage charges, data transfer charges and charges for anumber of requests.

Utility computing helps in reducing initial investment. As the computing requirements for an individual or an organization changes, the billing changes accordingly, without incurring any additional cost. If the usage has reduced, then billing will also reduce accordingly.

Cloud computing can be viewed as a new phenomenon which is set to change the way we utilize the Internet, there is much to be careful about. There are numerous new advances rising at a fast rate, each with mechanical headways and with the capability of making human’s lives. simpler. This paper clarifies a brief overview of Cloud Computing, Deployment Models and Service Models, Cloud computing techniques, Virtualization, SOA, Grid Computing and Utilities of Cloud Computing. We meant to center around the introduction and depiction of the developing patterns in the technology utilized for cloud based services. Several types of research were made in this field with a specific end goal to offer the on-request benefits for the clients and limit downtime while moving VM’s
memory starting with one physical host then onto the next. We will attempt later on to unite them to build up a reasonable approach to describe, find, form and manage
computing resources and network components constituting the cloud based of the SOA idea. This technique will give the adaptability and scalability expected to guarantee
interoperability amongst systems and heterogeneous resources shaping the cloud. We will center around the dynamic creation of systems shaping cloud and permit the disclosure, decay and execution services “cloud services” on request. The association and arrangement of these administrations will be managed ideally under SOA.